Published: April 28, 2017
Longley RJ, Franca CT, White MT, Kumpitak C, Sa-angchai P, Gruszczyk J, Hostetler JB, Yadava A, King CL, Fairhurst RM, Rayner JC, Tham W-H, Nguitragool W, Sattbongkot J, Mueller I. Asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax infections induce robust IgG responses to multiple blood-stage proteins in a low-transmission region of western Thailand. Malaria journal. 2017; 16(1):178. doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-1826-8
Thailand is aiming to eliminate malaria by the year 2024. Plasmodium vivax has now become the dominant species causing malaria within the country, and a high proportion of infections are asymptomatic. A better understanding of antibody dynamics to P. vivax antigens in a low-transmission setting, where acquired immune responses are poorly characterized, will be pivotal for developing new strategies for elimination, such as improved surveillance methods and vaccines. The objective of this study was to characterize total IgG antibody levels to 11 key P. vivax proteins in a village of western Thailand.
Plasma samples from 546 volunteers enrolled in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in Kanchanaburi Province were utilized. Total IgG levels to 11 different proteins known or predicted to be involved in reticulocyte binding or invasion (ARP, GAMA, P41, P12, PVX_081550, and five members of the PvRBP family), as well as the leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate (CSP) were measured using a multiplexed bead-based assay. Associations between IgG levels and infection status, age, and spatial location were explored.
Individuals from a low-transmission region of western Thailand reacted to all 11 P. vivax recombinant proteins. Significantly greater IgG levels were observed in the presence of a current P. vivax infection, despite all infected individuals being asymptomatic. IgG levels were also higher in adults (18 years and older) than in children. For most of the proteins, higher IgG levels were observed in individuals living closer to the Myanmar border and further away from local health services.