Loss of complement regulatory proteins on uninfected erythrocytes in vivax and falciparum malaria anemia
November 15, 2018
Red blood cells destruction through loss of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) is an immunopathogenic mechanism that contributes to malaria anaemia in Plasmodium falciparum. However, its role in P. vivax malaria is unknown. Our study showed CR1 and CD55 were reduced in severe anaemia in both falciparum and vivax malaria. The loss of CRPs however, was only restricted to uninfected RBCs, with infected RBCs having higher expressions. This study highlights the likely critical role of reduced CRPs expression on uninfected RBCs in falciparum and vivax malaria anaemia, and demonstrated that higher CRPs expression on infected RBCs may suggest parasite’s invasion and immune evasion strategy.
September 25, 2018
Multimorbidity is a major issue affecting pregnant women globally. Infectious diseases (such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections [STIs]) together with NCDs that are increasingly common in LMICs as a result of demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental changes (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anemia, micronutrient deficiencies, hypertension, and mental health challenges) each account for substantial morbidity in pregnancy. However, the burden of their combination is less well recognized, and the impacts are not well understood. In most malaria endemic populations, the burden of multimorbidities is very high such that malaria typically co-occurs with numerous other health problems and health risks. In this editorial, the authors call for greater investment in research, innovation, and translation to drive the development of new tools, interventions, and strategies, including greater investment in this are by the industry sector. They identify main priorities for research and innovation across levels of healthcare, and the need for workforce development and health system–patient–community partnerships for care and interventions across the spectrum of reproductive, maternal, and child health.
In silico investigation of the decline in clinical efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies due to increasing artemisinin and partner drug resistance
September 24, 2018
Antimalarial treatment currently relies on an artemisinin derivative and a longer acting partner drug. With the emergence of resistance to…
Iron deficiency during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of adverse birth outcomes in a malaria-endemic area in a longitudinal cohort study
September 20, 2018
Anemia and iron deficiency are common in malaria-endemic regions, but there are concerns regarding the value of iron supplementation among pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas due to reports that iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria. There is a lack of evidence on the impact of iron deficiency on pregnancy outcomes in malaria-endemic regions
In a cohort of pregnant women in Papua New Guinea, it was found that iron deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with substantially reduced odds of low birth weight. This affect appeared to be only partly through malaria-protective mechanisms, and other protective mechanisms may be involved. The findings suggest that suggest that iron supplementation needs to be integrated with other strategies to prevent or treat infections and undernutrition in pregnancy to achieve substantial improvements in birth outcomes.
September 18, 2018
Artemisinin and its derivatives (collectively referred to as ARTs) rapidly reduce the parasite burden in Plasmodium falciparum infections, and antimalarial control is…
Investigating the efficacy of triple artemisinin-based combination therapies (TACTs) for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients using mathematical modelling
August 27, 2018
The first line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria is artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which consists of an artemisinin derivative co-administered…
August 11, 2018
Malaria infection continues to be a major health problem worldwide and drug resistance in the major human parasite species, Plasmodium…
Implications of population-level immunity for the emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria: a mathematical model.
August 2, 2018
Background Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong Subregion, an area of relatively low transmission, but has yet…
The effect of chloroquine dose and primaquine on Plasmodium vivax recurrence: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network systematic review and individual patient pooled meta-analysis
July 19, 2018
Background Chloroquine remains the mainstay of treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria despite increasing reports of treatment failure. We did a systematic review…
Identity-by-descent analyses for measuring population dynamics and selection in recombining pathogens
May 23, 2018
Describes a novel algorithm for measuring relatedness between malaria parasites and other recombining pathogens, and to identify specific genes under selection. The research paves the way for defining transmission networks and to track the origins and spread of drug resistance.