Low Levels of Human Antibodies to Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocytes Contrasts the PfEMP1-Dominant Response to Asexual Stages in P. falciparum Malaria
January 14, 2019
Vaccines that target Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes have the potential to reduce malaria transmission and are thus attractive targets for malaria control. However,…
Risk of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia after Plasmodium falciparum infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
January 1, 2019
Background A 14-day course of primaquine is used for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria only. We quantified the risk of P…
Acquisition of antibodies against endothelial protein C receptor-binding domains of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in children with severe malaria
December 13, 2018
Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration in postcapillary venules in P. falciparum malaria. PfEMP1 types can…
Antibody targets on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that are associated with immunity to severe malaria in young children
December 13, 2018
Background Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum–infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the microvasculature contributes to pathogenesis of severe malaria in children. This mechanism…
Effectiveness of repellent delivered through village health volunteers on malaria incidence in villages in South-East Myanmar: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol
November 29, 2018
This paper outlines the study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of topical insect repellent delivered by village health volunteers in isolated villages in South East Myanmar.
Loss of complement regulatory proteins on uninfected erythrocytes in vivax and falciparum malaria anemia
November 15, 2018
Red blood cells destruction through loss of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) is an immunopathogenic mechanism that contributes to malaria anaemia in Plasmodium falciparum. However, its role in P. vivax malaria is unknown. Our study showed CR1 and CD55 were reduced in severe anaemia in both falciparum and vivax malaria. The loss of CRPs however, was only restricted to uninfected RBCs, with infected RBCs having higher expressions. This study highlights the likely critical role of reduced CRPs expression on uninfected RBCs in falciparum and vivax malaria anaemia, and demonstrated that higher CRPs expression on infected RBCs may suggest parasite’s invasion and immune evasion strategy.
September 25, 2018
Multimorbidity is a major issue affecting pregnant women globally. Infectious diseases (such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections [STIs]) together with NCDs that are increasingly common in LMICs as a result of demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental changes (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anemia, micronutrient deficiencies, hypertension, and mental health challenges) each account for substantial morbidity in pregnancy. However, the burden of their combination is less well recognized, and the impacts are not well understood. In most malaria endemic populations, the burden of multimorbidities is very high such that malaria typically co-occurs with numerous other health problems and health risks. In this editorial, the authors call for greater investment in research, innovation, and translation to drive the development of new tools, interventions, and strategies, including greater investment in this are by the industry sector. They identify main priorities for research and innovation across levels of healthcare, and the need for workforce development and health system–patient–community partnerships for care and interventions across the spectrum of reproductive, maternal, and child health.
In silico investigation of the decline in clinical efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies due to increasing artemisinin and partner drug resistance
September 24, 2018
Antimalarial treatment currently relies on an artemisinin derivative and a longer acting partner drug. With the emergence of resistance to…
Iron deficiency during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of adverse birth outcomes in a malaria-endemic area in a longitudinal cohort study
September 20, 2018
Anemia and iron deficiency are common in malaria-endemic regions, but there are concerns regarding the value of iron supplementation among pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas due to reports that iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria. There is a lack of evidence on the impact of iron deficiency on pregnancy outcomes in malaria-endemic regions
In a cohort of pregnant women in Papua New Guinea, it was found that iron deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with substantially reduced odds of low birth weight. This affect appeared to be only partly through malaria-protective mechanisms, and other protective mechanisms may be involved. The findings suggest that suggest that iron supplementation needs to be integrated with other strategies to prevent or treat infections and undernutrition in pregnancy to achieve substantial improvements in birth outcomes.
September 18, 2018
Artemisinin and its derivatives (collectively referred to as ARTs) rapidly reduce the parasite burden in Plasmodium falciparum infections, and antimalarial control is…